The Colonial Revival style became popular in the late nineteenth century. It draws its inspiration from Georgian Colonial architecture. Buildings of this type have strictly symmetrical facades and are usually rectangular in plan with no or minimum projections. Eaves have classical detailing. Windows are usually double-hung sash except when Palladian windows are used for accent. Front doors are often accentuated, normally with decorative crown supported by pilasters, or extended forward and supported by slender columns to form an entry porch.
This American style resembles Queen Anne style architecture, with less ornamental detail and a more horizontal structure. Distinguishing features include prominent roofs, wood shingles on exterior wall surfaces, narrow eaves and rugged stone for contrasting material.
The Stick style is rather a subdivision of the Queen Anne, having the same two-story informally arranged parts. But where Queen Anne has a tendency to classic type details, the Stick style lets wooden brackets and porch posts look like pieces of wood, and the ceiling is usually done in panels, shingles, or other siding patterns which are possible only in wood. The style tried to take advantage of the native properties of wood, openly used and expressed, and in no way imitate stone, marble or brick. Reprinted with permission from Historic Preservation Commission's Walking Tour.
The Second Empire style was influenced by Parisian architecture of the 1850s and 60s. Distinguishing features include a symmetrical orientation and sloping "mansard" roof with dormers and often multi-colored slate shingles.
Popularized by pattern books and Sears Roebuck & Company mail order kits, the American Foursquare was a post-Victorian style which shared many features with the Prairie architecture pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright. Its boxy shape provided roomy interiors for homes on small city lots. Architectural features typically include a simple box shape, low-hipped roof with deep overhang, large central dormer full-width porch with wide stairs and brick, wood or stone siding.
More generally referred to as Victorian, the Queen Anne style is characterized by asymmetry and frivolity. Distinguishing features include wood construction, colorful gingerbread ornamentation, expansive porches and irregular rooflines with many dormers and chimneys. It was the last popular style of the 19th century and is the style of the time when the Chapin Park neighborhood was developed.
The Tudor style is loosely based on a variety of early English building traditions ranging from simple folk houses to Late Medieval palaces. Most houses in this style emphasize high-pitched, gabled roofs, and elaborated chimneys of Medieval origin, but decorative detailing may draw from Renaissance or even the modern Craftsman traditions. Decorative half-timbering is often present.
This style, popular in the mid-to-late 19th century, was influenced by medieval church architecture in England, France and Germany. Distinguishing features of Gothic Revival include vertical proportions and steeply pitched roofs highlighted with intricate details, deep gables, dormers, arched windows, and all forms of gingerbread.
The Prairie style was developed after 1900 as a building type that answered the particular conditions of the Midwest. Frank Lloyd Wright is best known for working in this mode, but Ernest Young, a South Bend architect, designed many houses in this style from 1905 to 1920, and some of his best work can be seen along Riverside Drive. Characteristically, these houses are two stories and have projecting rectangular bays, generous overhanging eaves, door and open entry porch to one side, and windows in clusters, often at the corners instead of in the middle of a room. Reprinted with permission from Historic Preservation Commission's Walking Tour.